Anesthesia drugs are also known as “anesthetics” used to induce anesthesia to avoid pain and discomfort during and after surgery. Benzodiazepines, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Midazolam, Etomidate, Ketamine, Propofol. These drugs can be administered intravenously.
3 types of anesthesia
- General anesthesia: Patient is unconscious and feels nothing. Patient receives medicine by breathing it or through an IV.
- Local anesthesia: Patient is wide awake during surgery. Medicine is injected to numb a small area.
- Regional anesthesia: Patient is awake, and parts of the body are asleep. Medicine is injected.
Intravenous Agents: Propofol (Diprivan®), Ketamine, Etomidate. Propofol (Diprivan®) is the most commonly used IV general anesthetic. In lower doses, it induces sleep while allowing a patient to continue breathing on their own.
What is Anesthesia?
Anesthesia is the practice of administering medicines that block the feeling of pain or other sensations to allow medical or surgical operations to take place without causing undue distress or discomfort. There are various types of anesthesia, and most are given by inhalation (breathing in through the nose and mouth) or injection. The medication used to induce anesthesia is called an anesthetic.
The main types of anesthesia include:
- Procedural sedation: Commonly used outside of an operating room setting, procedural sedation provides a depressed level of consciousness so that a patient can tolerate unpleasant procedures without affecting cardiovascular function and without the need for airway management (help with breathing)
- Conscious sedation: Conscious sedation reduces a patient’s level of consciousness to a certain extent while still maintaining a certain level of awareness so that they can respond purposefully to verbal commands or light stimulation by touch. Often misused to describe other levels of sedation
- Analgesia: Uses medications that act locally (means in a small defined area) to reduce or eliminate pain in that area
- Regional anesthesia: involves an injection of a local anesthetic in the vicinity of major nerve bundles that supply a particular body area, for example, epidurals (into the spine) for childbirth, nerve blocks for dental procedures. May be used on its own or combined with general anesthesia
- General anesthesia: Uses a combination of intravenous and inhaled gases to produce a sleep-like state where the patient is unconscious and will not respond to any stimuli, including pain. This may cause changes in breathing and circulation which will need to be monitored.
Anesthesia is usually administered before an operation by an anesthesiologist or anesthetist. How anesthesia works is still only partially understood.
In most circumstances, anesthesia is very safe, even people who are quite seriously ill can be safely anesthetized. It is often the surgery that carries the biggest risk. However, complications after anesthesia may include an increased risk of a heart attack, pneumonia or stroke.
These outcomes can include postoperative confusion, heart attack, pneumonia, and stroke.
Symptoms of Anesthesia
Symptoms depend on the type of anesthesia used.
Local or regional anesthesia typically results in numbness or tingling in an area supplied by the nerves and moving that region of the body may become difficult or impossible.
General anesthesia causes a loss of consciousness which means you will be unable to feel pain and will not be aware of anything that is happening. Rarely, some people may experience unintended intraoperative awareness.
Side Effects of Anesthesia
Side effects of local anesthesia may include:
- Pain around the injection site
- Prolonged numbness that takes a few hours to wear off
- Dribbling or difficulty speaking if anesthesia was in the mouth.
Side effects of general anesthesia include:
- Bruising or soreness from the IV drip
- Feeling cold, shivering
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sore throat (from the breathing tube)
- Temporary memory loss and confusion.
See also: sub-topics
Drugs used for Anesthesia
The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition.Select drug class All drug classes narcotic analgesics (8) benzodiazepines (2) general anesthetics (16) neuromuscular blocking agents (7) anticholinergics/antispasmodics (18) local injectable anesthetics (12) topical anesthetics (46) anticholinergic bronchodilators (1) group I antiarrhythmics (4) Rx OTC Off-label Only Generics
|View information about propofolpropofol||7.8||368 reviews||Rx||B||N||X|
|View information about lidocainelidocaine||4.4||9 reviews||Rx||B||N|
|View information about fentanylfentanyl||5.6||6 reviews||Rx||C||2||X|
|View information about DiprivanDiprivan||8.4||20 reviews||Rx||B||N||X|
|View information about lidocaine / prilocainelidocaine / prilocaine||8.1||20 reviews||Rx||B||N|
|View information about ketamineketamine||3.4||28 reviews||Rx||N||3||X|
|View information about succinylcholinesuccinylcholine||2.2||37 reviews||Rx||C||N|
|View information about EmlaEmla||8.0||14 reviews||Rx||B||N|
|View information about glycopyrrolateglycopyrrolate||Rate||Add review||Rx||B||N||X|
|View information about lidocainelidocaine Off-label||3.7||6 reviews||Rx/OTC||B||N|
|View information about rocuroniumrocuronium||4.3||4 reviews||Rx||C||N|
|View information about etomidateetomidate||6.0||2 reviews||Rx||C||N||X|
|View information about Lidocaine ViscousLidocaine Viscous Off-label||1.0||1 review||Rx||B||N|
|View information about vecuroniumvecuronium||Rate||Add review||Rx||C||N|
|View information about AnectineAnectine||10||1 review||Rx||C||N|
|View information about AnaspazAnaspaz||Rate||Add review||Rx||C||N||X|
|View information about KetalarKetalar||4.3||3 reviews||Rx||N||3||X|
|View information about Xylocaine-MPFXylocaine-MPF||Rate||Add review||Rx||B||N|
|View information about Xylocaine HClXylocaine HCl||Rate||Add review||Rx||B||N|
|View information about Xylocaine JellyXylocaine Jelly Off-label||Rate||Add review||Rx/OTC||B||N|
|View information about Xylocaine TopicalXylocaine Topical Off-label||Rate||Add review||Rx/OTC||B||N|
|View information about AmidateAmidate||2.0||1 review||Rx||C||N||X|
|View information about hyoscyaminehyoscyamine||Rate||Add review||Rx||C||N||X|
|View information about LidaMantleLidaMantle Off-label||Rate||Add review||Rx||B||N|
|View information about LMX 4LMX 4 Off-label||1.0||1 review||OTC||B||N|
Topics under Anesthesia
- Anesthetic Adjunct (6 drugs)
- Bronchospasm During Anesthesia (2 drugs)
- Light Anesthesia (9 drugs)
- Light Sedation (17 drugs)
- Local Anesthesia (83 drugs)
- Postanesthetic Shivering (4 drugs)
- Reversal of Anesthesia (2 drugs)
- Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade (4 drugs)
- Reversal of Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants (8 drugs)
- Reversal of Sedation (3 drugs in 2 topics)
- Sedation (24 drugs in 2 topics)
|Rating||For ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective).|
|Activity||Activity is based on recent site visitor activity relative to other medications in the list.|
|OTC||Over the Counter.|
|Rx/OTC||Prescription or Over the Counter.|
|Off-label||This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition.|
|A||Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).|
|B||Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.|
|C||Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.|
|D||There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.|
|X||Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.|
|N||FDA has not classified the drug.|
|Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Schedule|
|N||Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act.|
|1||Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.|
|2||Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.|
|3||Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.|
|4||Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3.|
|5||Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 4. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4.|
|X||Interacts with Alcohol.|